MONEY ISSUE IN THE LIFE OF THE POPULATION OF KYIV PROVINCE (1797 – 1917)
Keywords:money, population, peasants, townspeople, treasure, coin, assignment, credit note, loan, usurer, credit institution.
The purpose of the article is to do research on the issue of spending money in an everyday life, which is one of the promising areas of scientific studies that are little researched in modern Ukrainian historiography. The article is written in the context of two sub-disciplinary areas of historical research: historical regionalism and economic history. The authors combined a number of methodological approaches, in particular, the use of general scientific methods, historical methods, numismatic methods, methods of historical regional studies, as well as methods of historical anthropology. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that for the first time in historiography, the money issue in the life of Kyiv province population (1797 – 1917) has been analyzed comprehensively, in particular, several aspects related to the money issue, which played a significant role in the life of population of Kyiv province, have been highlighted. The Conclusion. It has been proved that each population had its own segment of the money market, in particular, the possibility of using and accumulating different types of currency and denominations, as well as different possibilities of access to financial resources. Due to the unavailability of financial services for representatives of taxable estates, especially during the pre-reform period, hoarding of savings in the form of coin treasures became widespread. The analysis of the treasures found within the boundaries of Kyiv province during the 19th and the beginning of the 21st centuries showed certain trends, in particular, the hoarding of copper coins was typical of rural areas, while silver and gold coins – in cities and towns. Accordingly, a different relationship to money was formed, for inhabitants of rural areas, metal money, in particular silver coins of large denominations, became not only means of payment or accumulation, but were also used as ornaments for public demonstration of property status by transforming them into the traditional Ukrainian ornament “dukach”. During the pre-reform period another component of financial services market inaccessibility for representatives of taxable estates was transformation of money into a commodity, which was sold by various categories of usurers. One of the aspects of relations of Kyiv region residents with currency was existence of counterfeiting, which had not only a legal dimension – a criminal offense, but also a social one – the desire of fraudsters to get extra profit from deceiving other members of society.
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