RESETTLEMENT MOVEMENT AMONG THE GERMAN POPULATION OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR IN THE 1920S
The aim of the research is to elucidate poorly analyzed issue – the process of relocation of the German landless and smallholders from the Polissian and forest-steppe districts of the Ukrainian SSR to the free lands of the southern region of the Republic during the 1920s. The author used general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, system, method of generalization and the historical, historical and systemic methods to study this problem. The scientific novelty of the article is that, based on archival sources, the little-studied problem of resettlement of the German population in the southern regions of the Republic during the 1920s has been analyzed. The research is based on the documents from the Central State Archives of Higher Authorities and Administration of Ukraine. The following conclusions have been made: at the beginning of the 1920s, in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian SSR, in the Polissia zone and the forest-steppe of the Republic the “agrarian overpopulation” arose. There were several reasons for this phenomenon, and one of the main ones is the sharp increase in the population in these traditionally agricultural zones of Ukraine. Already in the first half of the 1920s, 68 000 German peasants (12.8 thousand yards) appeared in landless villages of Volhynia, Podillia, and partly in Kyiv and Chernihiv regions. Altogether 110 thousand people needed to improve their agricultural situation and resettlement to the free lands of the southern part of republic, or the All-Union Resettlement Land Fund (free lands in all Soviet Union). During the first half of the 1920s, 30 700 Germans and in the second half of the 1920s – at the beginning of the 1930s – 30 800 Germans moved to the southern regions of the Republic. It should be noted that the desirable condition for resettlement was the creation of collectivized resettlement farms. For settlers in the south of the republic not only enough land and pastures for productive farming and livestock was provided, as well as allocated state financial assistance for housing, purchase of agricultural inventory, the purchase of domestic animals, etc. But process of repression against German national minority was staged by the Soviet authorities during the 1930s – the 1940s. It led to the destruction of national settlements and death of representatives of the German nationality.
Key words: agrarian overpopulation, landless peasants, resettlement, German population, Ukrainian SSR.
Centralnyi Derzhavnyi Arkhiv Vyshykh Orhaniv Vlady i Upravlinnia Ukrainy [Central State Archive of the Supreme Bodies of Power and Management of Ukraine ‒ CSA SBPMU]
Chyrko, B. V. (2015). Nimetsʹka natsionalʹna menshyna v Ukrayini: etnopolitychni ta sotsialʹno-ekonomichni protsesy v umovakh radyansʹkoyi politychnoyi systemy (persha polovyna XX stolittya): monohrafiya [German National Minority in Ukraine: Ethnopolitical and Socio-economic Processes under the Conditions of the Soviet Political System (the first half of the XXth century): monograph]. Kyiv: AMU. [in Ukrainian]
Danylchenko, O. (1993). Etnichni hrupy pivdnya Ukrayiny: ekonomichni ta sotsialʹno-politychni sytuatsiyi na pochatku 20-kh rr. ХХ st. [Ethnic Groups in Southern Ukraine: Economic and Socio-political Situations at the Beginning of the 1920s.]. Kyiv: Instytut istoriyi AN Ukrayiny, 59 p. [in Ukrainian]
Derzhavnyi Arkhiv Zaporiz'koi Oblasti [State Archive of Zaporizhzhia Region ‒ SAZR]
Dinasheva, L. & Egamberdiyev, M. (2014). Forced Deportation of People in Kazakhstan. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 131, 300–303. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.120 [in English]
Kadol, O. (2019). Policy of Tsarism and Soviet Leadership Concerning the Ethnic Germans during the First and the Second World War. Skhidnoievropeiskyi Istorychnyi Visnyk – East European Historical Bulletin, 10, 111–117. Doi: https://doi.org/10.24919/2519-058x.10.159175
Kotlyar, Yu. (2006). Nimetski koloniyi pivdnya Ukrayiny v period novoyi ekonomichnoyi polityky [The German Colonies of Southern Ukraine during the Period of the New Economic Policy]. In M.O. Bahmet (Ed.), Nimetski poselentsi v Ukrayini: istoriya ta sohodennya. (pp. 334–341). Kyiv, Mykolaiv: MDGU im. Petra Mohyly. [in Ukrainian]
Kozyreva, M. (2006). Administratyvno-terytorialni peretvorennya ta sotsialno-ekonomichnyy rozvytok nimetskykh rayoniv Pivdnya Ukrayiny v 20–30-kh rr. XX st. [Administrative and Territorial Transformations and Socio-economic Development of the German Regions of Southern Ukraine in the 20s – 30s of the XXth Century]. In M.O. Bahmet (Ed.), Nimetski poselentsi v Ukrayini: istoriya ta sohodennya. (pp. 324–331). Kyiv, Mykolaiv: MDGU im. Petra Mohyly. [in Ukrainian]
Panchuk, M., Kovalchuk, O., & Chyrko, B. (2006). Natsionalna nimetska menshyna v Ukrayini u 1920–30-kh rokakh [The National German Minority in Ukraine in the 1920s and 30s]. In M.O. Bahmet (Ed.), Nimetski poselentsi v Ukrayini: istoriya ta sohodennya. (pp. 320–323). Kyiv, Mykolaiv: MDGU im. Petra Mohyly. [in Ukrainian]
Petrenko, I., & Loshchykhin, O. (2019). German Colonies in Poltava Region. Skhidnoievropeiskyi Istorychnyi Visnyk, 11, 78–88. Doi: https://doi.org/10.24919/2519-058x.11.170702
Rozovyk, O. (2020). The Eviction of Polish and German Population from the Border Regions of the Ukrainian SSR to the Kazakh SSR in 1935 – 1936. The Universe of History and Archeology, 3(28), Issue 1, 139–150. Doi: 10.15421/26200112
Serhiychuk, V. (2006). Etapy pereselennya nimtsiv v Ukrayinu [Stages of Resettlement of the Germans to Ukraine]. In M.O. Bahmet (Ed.), Nimetski poselentsi v Ukrayini: istoriya ta sohodennya. (pp. 43–66). Kyiv, Mykolaiv: MDGU im. Petra Mohyly. [in Ukrainian]
Shmelev, G.I. (1991). Soviet Agrarian Policy: Past and Present. Food Policy, 16 (4), 273–276. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-9192(91)90019-G [in English]
Shytyuk, M. (2006). Nimetska hromada Pivdnya Ukrayiny v period masovykh represiy 20 – 40-kh rr. XX st. [The German Community of Southern Ukraine during the Period of Mass Repressions of the 20s and 40s of the XXth Century]. In M.O. Bahmet (Ed.), Nimetski poselentsi v Ukrayini: istoriya ta sohodennya. (pp. 353–369). Kyiv, Mykolaiv: MDGU im. Petra Mohyly. [in Ukrainian]
Yakovleva, L. V., Chyrko, B. V. & Pyshko, S. P. (Comps.). (1994). Nimtsi v Ukrayini. 20-30-ti rr. XX st.: zbirnyk dokumentiv derzhavnykh arkhiviv Ukrayiny [The Germans in Ukraine. The 20 – 30s of the 20th Century: a Collection of Documents of the State Archives of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Instytut istoriyi Ukrayiny NAN Ukrayiny, 244 p. [in Ukrainian]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors published in this journal agree with following conditions:
1. The authors reserve to themselves the right to the authorship of their works and transfer the right of their first publication to the journal on the terms of Creatіve Common Attrіbutіon Lіcense which allows to freely extend to other persons the published work with an obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and its first publication in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to complete independent additional agreements concerning the not exclusive distribution of their work in the form in which it was published in this journal (for example, to place the work in the electronic storehouse of an establishment or to publish as a monograph component), under the condition of the preservation of the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.
3. The journal’s policy allows and encourage the authors to place their manuscripts into the Internet (for example, in depositories of establishments or on personal web-sites) either before submitting of the manuscript for publication or during its editorial processing as it assists the occurrence of a productive scientific discussion and positively affects the efficiency and dynamics of citing of the published work.