THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL ON THE FORMATION OF PRECONDITIONS AND THE COURSE OF THE PEASANT REVOLUTION IN NADDNIPRIANSKA UKRAINE (1902 – 1922)
The purpose of the article is to analyze the influence of alcohol on the formation of objective preconditions of the peasant struggle and the course of socio-political processes in the Ukrainian village of the first decades of the 20th century. The research methodology is based on the use of the principle of historicism, which helped to elucidate consistently the role and place of alcohol as a component of the Peasant Revolution: from the first pogroms of “wine” objects in 1905 to their final destruction in 1917; to elucidate the attitude of peasantry to alcohol abuse under the conditions of military and political upheavals. Theoretical achievements of social psychology (G. Le Bon's crowd psychology), analytical psychology (C. Jung's collective unconscious) contribute to the explanation of the peculiarities of peasants' riotous behaviour. The scientific novelty of the research consists in clarifying the influence of alcohol on the development of socio-cultural and political processes in the Ukrainian village through the prism of the conflict between peasants and landlords and state (1902 – 1922). The authors have analyzed the sum of money wasted on alcohol in peasant budgets at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries; there has been given the answer to the question concerning the influence of alcohol abuse on the causes formation of the Peasant Revolution; a comparative analysis of “drunken” riots in 1905 and 1917 has been carried out; the attitude of peasants to moonshine brewing in 1917 – 1922 has been characterized.
The Conclusions. “Drunken” riots were a concomitant phenomenon of the Peasant Revolution in Naddniprianska Ukraine in the first decades of the 20th century. At the same time, peasants' abuse of alcohol was not the cause of the Peasant Revolution. In 1905, peasants were motivated by food difficulties to destroy alcohol industry facilities, it was the protest against state policy. For a long time, alcohol was a factor that determined the course of socio-political processes in the Ukrainian countryside (mass pogroms of distilleries, alcohol warehouses, wine shops, landowners' estates, sugar factories). Under the conditions of military and political upheavals of 1918 – 1920, mass moonshine brewing served as a financial support for peasantry and at the same time played a negative social role.
Key words: alcohol, peasants, the Peasant Revolution, “drunken” riots, alcohol, distilleries, Naddniprianska Ukraine.
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