DOI: https://doi.org/10.24919/2519-058x.12.177560

OIL WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF REGION IN 50-IES – 60-IES OF THE XXTH CENTURY

Zinaida SVYASCHENKO, Olena SKRIPNIK

Анотація


Summary. The purpose of the research is to study the policies of Great Britain, the United States and the USSR in the Persian Gulf region in the 1950-ies and 1960-ies in the context of the struggle for oil power. The methodology of the research is based on the principles of systemicity, authenticity, historicism, logics. General scientific (analysis, synthesis, generalization) and special-historical (historical-typological, historical-system) methods have been used. The events are considered according to their interrelation and in the totality of the revealed historical facts. The scientific novelty of the research is based on the fact that for the first time in the modern national historiography, based on the specific actual material, the policy features of the great countries in the Persian Gulf in the 50-ies and 60-ies of the XXth century have been analyzed. It has been proved that the present time oil industry had been establishing during 1950-ies and1960-ies of the XXth century. Conclusions. In the 50-ies and 60-ies of the XXth century the oil industry underwent the profound changes: the energy ambitions growth of the major Western oil companies, such as Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), Standard Oil of California, Texas Oil Company, Mobil Oil, Gulf Oil, British Petroleum, the Royal Dutch-Shell Group, and the political and economic independence movement expanding in the oil-exporting countries (Iran, the Persian Gulf countries) led to a deepening of the crisis between the two sides. At the same time, the political struggle between the superpowers, which broke out with renewed vigor after the end of the Second World War, was used, including the energy control levers by means of a direct or indirect pressure on the oil-producing countries. During this period, the old oil production system and the oil exports, laid in the colonial era, collapsed, the agreements between the exporting countries and the extractive oil companies become more transparent, the pricing is carried out under conditions of the equal competitive relations within the framework of a market economy.


Ключові слова


oil industry, world politics, Persian Gulf, oil mining companies, oil policy.

Посилання


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