CHURCH JUDICIAL PROCESS IN THE UKRAINIAN HETMAN STATE (VIISKO ZAPORIZKE): ANALYSIS OF JUDICIARY PRACTICE
Summary. The aim of the research. The article focuses on the analysis of the judiciary practice against the church and faith during the period of Ukrainian Hetman state (Viisko Zaporizke). The judiciary practice is preserved in the court books, the Lithuanian metrics and the archival materials, in order to find out the features of the time trial, in particular, and the church law in general. The research methodology. Having applied the necessary methodological means, namely: dialectical, axiological, historical and philosophical, systemic, functional methods; formal-legal, systemic-structural, genetic, historical functional, comparative legal and historical legal methods, there has been investigated and generalized the experience of reviewing the cases on the crimes against the church and the faith under the conditions of the formation of the Ukrainian national state, founded by Hetman B. Khmelnytskyi. The scientific novelty consists in elucidating the peculiarities of considering the cases against the faith and the church in Ukrainian Hetman state, establishing mitigating circumstances that contributed to the reduction of punishment or the release. Conclusions. In the article it has been confirmed that after the end of the National Liberation War of the Ukrainian people in the second half of the XVIIth century the competence of the church courts was not defined at the legislative level. In fact, the church courts considered only their own internal church affairs, and the crimes against the faith and the church belonged to the general jurisdiction of secular Cossack or magistrate courts. It has been traced the reception of the legal traditions that existed during the Rus era and remained their validity under the conditions of Ukrainian Hetman state existence. Because in the second half of the XVIIth century in Ukraine there continued to be used water testing as the form of evidence, genetically inherited from the legal system of the Rus state. Consequently, the continuity of Ukrainian law has been proved. It has been confirmed that the legal responsibility that followed the crimes committed against the church and faith had its peculiarity in connection with the need to reconcile the final court sentence with the requirements of the injured party. There have been revealed the cases of mitigation and abolition of the sanctions in case of the absence of the categorical claims and demands of the victim and the correspondent petitions from the representatives of the clergy and the community. It has been revealed that the crime cases against religion, family and morals could be considered by any court, regardless of their hierarchy in the vertical of this branch of government, despite a number of the judicial institutions that functioned in Ukraine.
Antonovych, V. B. (1877). Koldovstvo: dokument, process, іssledovanye [Sorcery: documents, processes, research]. Sankt-Peterburg: Tіp. V. Kyrshbauma, 150 p. [in Russian].
Arxiv Yugo-zapadnoj Rossii (1867). Arxiv Yugo-zapadnoj Rossii, izdavaem vremennoj komissiej dlya razbora drevnix aktov, visochajsheu chrezhdennuy pri Kievskom Voennom, Podolskom Volinskom general-gubernatore (v 37 t.) [The archive of South-Western Russia, issued by a temporary commission for the analysis of ancient acts, established by the highest at the Kiev Military, Podolsk and Volyn general-governor]. Kiev, (1859 – 1914). Ch. 4. T. 1: Aktu o proisxozhdenii shlyaxetskix rodov v ygo-zapadnoj Rossii [Acts on the origin of gentry families in southwestern Russia]. Kiev: Tip. E. Fedorova, 460 p. [in Russian].
Arxiv Yugo-zapadnoj Rossii (1861). Arxiv Yugo-zapadnoj Rossii, izdavaem vremennoj komissiej dlya razbora drevnix aktov, visochajsheu chrezhdennuy pri Kievskom Voennom, Podolskom Volinskom general-gubernatore (v 37 t.) [The archive of South-Western Russia, issued by a temporary commission to review the ancient acts, established by the highest at the Kiev Military, Podolsk and Volynsk Governor-General]. Kiev, (1859 – 1914). Ch. 2. T. 1: Postanovleniya dvoryanskix provincialnix sejmov v Ygozapadnoj Rossii [Decisions of the provincial nobility nobility in South-West Russia]. Kiev: Universitetskaya tipografiya, 530 s. [in Russian].
Bezklubyj, I. A., Grucenko, I. S., & Shevchenko, O. O. (2010). Istoriya ukrayinskogo prava: posibnuk [The History of Ukrainian Law]. Kyiv: Gramota. 336 p. [in Ukrainian].
Isichenko, I. (2003). Istoriy Khristiyanskoy cerkvi v Ukraini [History of the Christian Church in Ukraine]. Kharkiv: Akta, 2003. 472 p. [in Ukrainian].
Kolodij, A. M., Yaroczkij, P. L., & Lobovuk B. O. (1999). Istoriyareligii v Ukrayini: navchalnuj posibnuk [History of religion in Ukraine]. Kyiv: Znannya 1999. 735 p. [in Ukrainian].
Lazarevskyj, A. M. (1898). Zamechaniya naistoricheskie monografii D. P. Millera o malorusskom dvoryanstvei o statutovix sudax [Notes on the historical monographs of D. P. Miller about the Little Russian nobility and the statutory courts]. Otchet komiteta po prisuzhdenii premij, uchrezhdennikh Kharkovskim zemelnym bankom v pamiyat dvadczatypyatiletiya czarstvovaniya Imperatora Aleksandra II pri Imperatorskom Kharkovskom universitete (pp. 1–51). Kharkov: Tipografiya Adolfa Darre. [in Russian].
Leviczkyj, Or. (1901). Ochenrki narodnoj zhizni v Malorosiy vovttorojpolovine XVII st. [Sketches of national life in the Ukraine in the second half of the XVII century]. Kyievskaya Starina, 72, Yanvar. 3–36 [in Russian].
Macelyux, I. A. (2015). Dzherela cerkovnogo prava za doby ukrayinskogo Serednovichchya [Sources of ecclesiastical law during the Ukrainian Middle Ages]. Kyiv: Talkom. 290 p. [in Ukrainian].
Onishhenko, O. S. (red.). (1991). Istoriya xristiyanskoy cerkvi na Ukraini (religieznavchij dovidnukovij narus) [History of the Christian Church in Ukraine (Religious reference book)]. Kyiv: Naukovadumka. 104 p. [in Ukrainian].
Smolij, V. (ed.). (1998). Universaly Bogdana Xmelnyczkogo. 1648 – 1657 [Bogdan Khmelnitsky Universal. 1648 – 1657]. Kyiv: Alternatyva, 383 p. [in Ukrainian].
Xarishyn, M. V. (1995). Yuridychne vyznannya Ukrayinskoyi pravoslavnoyi cerkvi Polskoyu derzhavoyu v 30 rokax XVII st. [Legal recognition of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church by the Polish state in the 30's of the XVII century]. Visnyk Kyivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Istoriya, 34. 114–123. [in Ukrainian].
Yakovenko, N. (2006). Narus istoriyi Ukrayiny z najdavnishix chasivdokincya XVIII stolittya [Essay on the history of Ukraine from ancient times to the end of the XVIII century]. Kyiv: Krytyka. 584 p. [inUkrainian].
Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ
ISSN 2519-058X (Print) ISSN 2664-2735 (Online)